IIU: Specialized Architecture for Inverted Index Search

Session: Accelerators--Holding hands!

Authors: Jun Heo (Seoul National University); Jaeyeon Won (Seoul National University); Yejin Lee (Seoul National University); Shivam Bharuka (Facebook, Inc. & Seoul National University); Jaeyoung Jang (Sungkyunkwan University); Tae Jun Ham (Seoul National University); Jae Lee (Seoul National University)

Inverted index serves as a fundamental data structure for efficient search across various applications such as full-text search engine, document analytics and other information retrieval systems. The storage requirement and query load for these structures have been growing at a rapid rate. Thus, an ideal indexing system should maintain a small index size with a low query processing time. Previous works have mainly focused on using CPUs and GPUs to exploit query parallelism while utilizing state-of-the-art compression schemes to fit the index in memory. However, scaling parallelism to maximally utilize memory bandwidth on these architectures is still challenging. In this work, we present IIU, a novel inverted index processing unit, to optimize the query performance while maintaining a low memory overhead for index storage. To this end, we co-design the indexing scheme and hardware accelerator so that the accelerator can process highly compressed inverted index at a high throughput. In addition, IIU provides flexible interconnects between modules to take advantage of both intra- and inter-query parallelism. Our evaluation using a cycle-level simulator demonstrates that IIU provides an average of 13.8\times× query latency reduction and 5.4\times× throughput improvement across different query types, while reducing the average energy consumption by 18.6\times×, compared to Apache Lucene, a production-grade full-text search framework.